Identification is treated as a separate functionality
here. While it is true that a system for access control and a surveillance
system will both ‘identify’ something, here
we use the term to describe a system that might answer the question, “Are
you who you say you are?”
Identification Systems are:
or Cooperative, Overt, Habituated or Non-Habituated, Attended, Standard, Public
or Private and Open or Closed.
In applications verifying the positive claim of identity, such as access control, a deceptive user cooperates with the system in an attempt to be recognized as someone s/he is not. This is therefore called a "cooperative" application. In applications verifying a negative claim to identity (for example where one’s absence from a database allows access), the deceptive user attempts to deceive the system so as not to be identified. This is called a "non-cooperative" application. Users in cooperative applications may be asked to identify themselves in some way, perhaps with a card or a PIN, thereby limiting the database search of stored templates to that of a single claimed identity. Users in non-cooperative applications cannot be relied on to identify themselves correctly, thereby requiring the search of a large portion of the database. Cooperative, but so-called "PIN-less", verification applications also require search of the entire database.
If the user is aware that a biometric identifier
is being measured, the use is overt. If unaware, the use is covert.
Almost all conceivable access control and non-forensic applications
are overt. Forensic applications can be covert. One could argue
that this second partition dominates the first in that a deceptive
user cannot cooperate or non-cooperate unless the application is
Users presenting a biometric trait on a daily
basis can be considered habituated after short period of time. Users
who have not presented the trait recently can be considered
Access control to a secure work area is generally "habituated".
Access control to a sporting event is generally "non-habituated".
Refers to whether the use of the biometric device during operation
will be observed and guided by system management. Non-cooperative
applications will generally require supervised operation, while
cooperative operation may or may not. Nearly all systems supervise
the enrollment process, although some do not.
vs. Non-Standard Environment
If the application takes place indoors at standard
environmental conditions, it is considered a "standard environment" application.
Outdoor systems, and perhaps some unusual indoor systems, are considered "non-standard
Will the users of the system be customers of the
entity in charge of system management (public) or employees of that
entity (private)? Clearly attitudes toward usage of the devices,
which will directly affect performance, vary depending upon the
relationship between the end-users and system management owners.
Will the system be required, now or in the
future, to exchange data with other biometric systems run by other
management? For instance, some State social service agencies want
to be able to exchange biometric information with other States.
If a system is to be open, data collection, compression and format
standards are required.